Salvation is Coming (to CSP)

CSP (Content Security Policy) is a W3C candidate recommendation for a policy language that can be used to declare content restrictions for web resources, commonly delivered through the Content-Security-Policy header. Serving a CSP policy helps to prevent exploitation of cross-site scripting (XSS) and other related vulnerabilities. CSP has wide browser support according to

Content Security Policy 1.0 Implementation Status

Content Security Policy Level 2 Implementation Status

There’s no downside to starting to use CSP today. Older browsers that do not recognise the header or future additions to the specification will safely ignore them, retaining the current website behaviour. Policies that use deprecated features will also continue to work, as the standard is being developed in a backward compatible way. Unfortunately, our results of scanning the Alexa top 50K websites for CSP headers align with other reports which show that only major web properties like Twitter, Dropbox, and Github have adopted CSP. Smaller properties are not as quick to do so, despite how relatively little effort is needed for a potentially significant security benefit. We would be happy to see CSP adoption grow among smaller websites.

Writing correct content security policies is not always straightforward, and mistakes make it into production. Browsers will not always tell you that you’ve made a typo in your policy. This can provide a false sense of security.

Announcing Salvation

Today, Shape Security is releasing Salvation, a FOSS general purpose Java library for working with Content Security Policy. Salvation can help with:

  • parsing CSP policies into an easy-to-use representation
  • answering questions about what a CSP policy allows or restricts
  • warning about nonsensical CSP policies and deprecated or nonstandard features
  • safely creating, manipulating, and merging CSP policies
  • rendering and optimising CSP policies

We created Salvation with the goal of being the easiest and most reliable standalone tool available for managing CSP policies. Using this library, you will not have to worry about tricky cases you might encounter when manipulating CSP policies. Working on this project helped us to identify several bugs in both the CSP specification and its implementation in browsers.

Try It Out In Your Browser

We have also released, which exposes a subset of Salvation’s features through a web interface. You can validate and inspect policies found on a public web page or given through text input. Additionally, you can try merging CSP policies using one of the two following strategies:

  • Intersection combines policies in such a way that the result will behave similar to how browsers enforce each policy individually. To better understand how it works, try to intersect default-src a b with default-src; script-src *; style-src c.
  • Union, which is useful when crafting a policy, starting with a restrictive policy and allowing each resource that is needed. See how union merging is not simply concatenation by merging script-src * with script-src a in the validator.


You can check out the source code for Salvation on Github or start using it today by adding a dependency from Maven Central. We welcome contributions to this open source project.